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Atropine

Amblyopia, or "lazy eye," is the most common cause of visual impairment in children. It happens when an eye fails to work properly with the brain. The eye may look normal, but the brain favors the other eye. In some cases, it can affect both eyes. Causes include

  • Strabismus - a disorder in which the two eyes don't line up in the same direction
  • Refractive error in an eye - when one eye cannot focus as well as the other, because of a problem with its shape. This includes nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.
  • Cataract - a clouding in the lens of the eye

It can be hard to diagnose amblyopia. It is often found during a routine vision exam.

Treatment for amblyopia forces the child to use the eye with weaker vision. There are two common ways to do this. One is to have the child wear a patch over the good eye for several hours each day, over a number of weeks to months. The other is with eye drops that temporarily blur vision. Each day, the child gets a drop of a drug called atropine in the stronger eye. It is also sometimes necessary to treat the underlying cause. This could include glasses or surgery.

NIH: National Eye Institute

Atropine FDA Approved Drugs

ATROPEN [AtropineC17H23NO3]
RX
-
eq 0.25mg sulfate/0.3ml (injection injectable)
eq 0.5mg sulfate/0.7ml (injection injectable)
eq 1mg sulfate/0.7ml (injection injectable)
eq 2mg sulfate/0.7ml (injection injectable)
Meridian Medcl TechnSep 17, 2004
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

ATROPINE SULFATE [Atropine Sulfate2C17H23NO3H2OH2O4S]
RX
-
1% (ophthalmic solution/drops)
AkornJul 18, 2014
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

ATROPINE SULFATE ANSYR PLASTIC SYRINGE [Atropine Sulfate2C17H23NO3H2OH2O4S]
RX
-
0.05mg/ml (intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous injectable)
0.1mg/ml (intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous injectable)
HospiraJul 9, 2001
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

DIPHENOXYLATE HYDROCHLORIDE AND ATROPINE SULFATE [Atropine Sulfate2C17H23NO3H2OH2O4S : Diphenoxylate HydrochlorideC30H32N2O2ClH]
RX
-
0.025mg/5ml : 2.5mg/5ml (oral solution)
0.025mg : 2.5mg (oral tablet)
West-ward Pharms IntMay 3, 1982
Ani Pharms IncApproved Prior To Jan 1, 1982
LannettApproved Prior To Jan 1, 1982
MylanApproved Prior To Jan 1, 1982
Par PharmMay 2, 2000
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

DUODOTE [AtropineC17H23NO3 : Pralidoxime ChlorideC7H9N2OCl]
RX
-
2.1mg/0.7ml : 600mg/2ml (intramuscular injectable)
Meridian MedclSep 28, 2006
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

ENLON-PLUS [Atropine Sulfate2C17H23NO3H2OH2O4S : Edrophonium ChlorideC10H16NOCl]
RX
-
0.14mg/ml : 10mg/ml (injection injectable)
Mylan InstitutionalNov 6, 1991
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

HOMATROPINE METHYLBROMIDE AND HYDROCODONE BITARTRATE [Homatropine MethylbromideC17H24NO3Br : Hydrocodone Bitartrate2C18H21NO32C4H6O65H2O]
RX
-
1.5mg : 5mg (oral tablet)
Novel Labs IncApr 20, 2011
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

HYDROCODONE BITARTRATE AND HOMATROPINE METHYLBROMIDE [Homatropine MethylbromideC17H24NO3Br : Hydrocodone Bitartrate2C18H21NO32C4H6O65H2O]
RX
-
1.5mg/5ml : 5mg/5ml (oral syrup)
Abhai LlcFeb 21, 2017
Actavis Mid AtlanticJul 5, 1983
Bio-pharm IncMar 6, 2017
Hi Tech PharmaFeb 8, 2008
Novel Labs IncFeb 13, 2017
Paddock LlcFeb 15, 2017
WockhardtMar 3, 1983
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

ISOPTO ATROPINE [Atropine Sulfate2C17H23NO3H2OH2O4S]
RX
-
1% (ophthalmic solution/drops)
Novartis Pharms CorpDec 1, 2016
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

LOMOTIL [Atropine Sulfate2C17H23NO3H2OH2O4S : Diphenoxylate HydrochlorideC30H32N2O2ClH]
RX
-
0.025mg : 2.5mg (oral tablet)
Gd Searle LlcApproved Prior To Jan 1, 1982
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

MOTOFEN [Atropine Sulfate2C17H23NO3H2OH2O4S : Difenoxin HydrochlorideC28H28N2O2ClH]
RX
-
0.025mg : 1mg (oral tablet)
Sebela Ireland LtdApproved Prior To Jan 1, 1982
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

TUSSIGON [Homatropine MethylbromideC17H24NO3Br : Hydrocodone Bitartrate2C18H21NO32C4H6O65H2O]
RX
-
1.5mg : 5mg (oral tablet)
King PharmsJul 30, 1985
efficacy
0.0  (0)
side effects
0.0  (0)
danger
0.0  (0)

UNK

WARNING: Consult a licensed physician in the appropriate field for medical treatment and drug prescription. Do not self medicate.


WARNING: All medicines, drugs, plants, chemicals or medicial precedures below are for historical reference only. Many of these treatments are now known to be harmful and possibly fatal. Do not consume any plant, chemical, drug or otherwise without first consulting a licensed physician that practices medine in the appropriate field.

Felter's Materia Medica on Atropine

AGARICUS (Amanita muscaria)
   ...s, when violent peristalsis takes place, paralysis and death. Muscarine is the direct antagonist to atropine. Closely allied to Agaricus is Amanita phalloides, Fries or Death Cup. Common in the United......omeopathic origin and have been but little followed by Eclectic practitioners. Muscarine is used in atropine and belladonna poisoning, sometimes being employed in place of eserine (physostigmine). 1

ARNICA MONTANA
   The dried flower-heads of Arnica montana, Linné (Nat. Ord. Compositae). A perennial of Siberia and the cooler parts of Europe; also found in... / ...d in lobar pneumonia. In such conditions arnica is most useful and compares well with strychnine or atropine, or phosphorus, none of which are so safe as arnica. Arnica will prove useful in the depres...1

BELLADONNA (Atropa belladonna)ATROP
   ...Radix); (2) Belladonna Leaves (Belladonnae Folia). Principal Constituents.—The poisonous alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine, belladonnine, and hyoscine. There is much confusion concerning the constituen......yamine, with conversion products, probably being the chief alkaloid. This is readily convertible in atropine. The alkaloids probably exist as malates. Preparations.—1. Specific Medicine Belladonna (p....... Large doses: mydriatic. Action.—The action of Belladonna depends largely upon its chief alkaloid Atropine. Therapy.—External. Belladonna, and more rarely atropine, may be applied for the relief of...1

CINNAMOMUM
   I. Cinnamomum Saigonicum. Dried bark of an undetermined species of Cinnamomum. Chiefly from China. II. Cinnamomum Zeylanicum. Dried bark of... / ...mptly effective. If not equal to the emergency, then a small hypodermatic injection of morphine and atropine sulphates will usually check the bleeding. When used with ergot in pulmonary hemorrhage pro...1

COLCHICUMCOLCH
   The dried (I) root and (II) seed of Colchicum autumnale, Linné (Nat. Ord. Liliaceae.) England and other parts of Europe. Dose, Corm, 1 to 5... / ...f water and followed by the use of emetics or the stomach pump. Opium may be given to relieve pain, atropine to sustain breathing, and artificial heat to maintain bodily warmth. Therapy.—Colchicum is...1

CONIUM
   The full grown fruit, gathered green, of Conium maculatum, Linné (Nat. Ord. Umbelliferae). Europe and Asia; naturalized in the United... / ...omach by means of the stomach pump. Artificial respiration and heat are to be used, and strychnine, atropine and digitalis, as well as the diffusible stimulants, to sustain respiration and the circula... / ...be applied and be given to relieve pain even when a cure is not possible. It relieves the pain of swollen mammae during the menstrual periods a1

DUBOISINA
   ... Action and Therapy.—External. The sulphate of this alkaloid is sometimes used as a substitute for atropine as a mydriatic. Like atropine, it is contraindicated by glaucoma and diseases of the fundu......ase intraocular tension. It is a more rapid mydriatic and paralyzes accommodation more quickly than atropine and is less irritant to the conjunctivae. Internal. Duboisine is very similar to, if not id......oisoning by mushrooms. It also checks colliquative sweating. It is reported prompter in action than atropine, and is said to be a better calmative and hypnotic in states of mental excitement. The morp...1

DULCAMARA. (Solanum dulcamara)SODU
   The young branches of Solanum Dulcamara, Linné (Nat. Ord. Solanaceae). A vine common in Europe and the United States. Dose, 1 to 30... / ... of dulcamara are closely allied to those of belladonna, minus the profound impression derived from atropine. Dulcamara should be remembered as a possible remedy in chronic skin diseases of a pustular...1

GELSEMIUM
   ...e pupil, with accompanying paralysis of accommodation. The mydriasis is not so lasting as that from atropine. Gelsemium is quickly absorbed and spends its force in about three hours. The alkaloid gels......s of failure. Stimulation of the respiratory function should be enforced by the hypodermatic use of atropine, and that of the heart by ammonia, ether, alcohol and digitalis, the first three in the ord...1

HYOSCYAMUS
   ...pon its associated hyoscyamine in the parent drug, the latter alkaloid being more closely allied to atropine in action. This check upon the latter makes hyoscyamus less excitant and less furiously del......is of great advantage in the treatment of the insane. There is little observable difference between atropine and hyoscyamine upon the mechanism of ocular accommodation, but the latter sometimes fails ......athing. Scopolamine (hyoscine), however, is said to cause stronger mydriasis and more quickly than atropine, though it is of shorter duration. Hyoscyamine is more hypnotic and less deliriant than atr...1

LEUCANTHEMUMLESU49
   The whole plant of Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Linné) (Nat. Ord. Compositae.) Introduced into America from Europe. Common Names: Ox-eye Daisy, Field... / ... in cases of colliquative sweating in which it is not desirable to use the active antihydrotics, as atropine, muscarine, or camphoric acid.1

PHYSOSTIGMAPHYSO4
   ...he alkaloid or the extract be applied to the conjunctiva close contraction takes place, even though atropine has previously produced dilatation; and the effects are confined only to the eye so treated......y physostigma and its alkaloidal salt consists in the hypodermatic administration of a full dose of atropine sulphate, the best-known physiologic antidote (prompt emesis and tannic acid if the poison ......ility of the antagonizing effect of pilocarpine (which by some is regarded equally as antidotal as atropine) in doses proportionate to the quantity of poison ingested. Therapy.—External. Extract of ...1

PILOCARPUSPILOC
   ...undice; increased ocular tension; deafness due to deficient aural secretion; alopecia; poisoning by atropine or belladonna; colliquative sweating (minute dose). Action and Toxicology.—Jaborandi and ......ession per se upon the epithelial secretory cells. This they prove by completely checking them with atropine, known to act upon the same parts but in exactly an opposite manner. Cushny declares that b...... These bodies are stimulated by pilocarpine and muscarine (agaricine) and depressed or paralyzed by atropine. It is generally conceded that while atropine is the complete antagonist of pilocarpine, wh...1

STRAMONIUM (Datura spp.)
   ...n Weed, Thornapple. h Principal Constituents.—The chief datura alkaloids are hyoscyamine, and some atropine, and hyoscine. Daturine is probably a mixture of the first two. (See also Hyoscyamus and Be......tical with, hyoscyamine. American manufacturers are now utilizing stramonium for the preparation of atropine from daturine, and during the year 1917 of the great World War this source practically prev......from daturine, and during the year 1917 of the great World War this source practically prevented an atropine famine in the American drug markets. Therapy.—External. Fomentations of stramonium leaves,...1


WARNING: All medicines, drugs, plants, chemicals or medicial precedures below are for historical reference only. Many of these treatments are now known to be harmful and possibly fatal. Do not consume any plant, chemical, drug or otherwise without first consulting a licensed physician that practices medine in the appropriate field.

Physician's Materia Medica on Atropine

ATROPINE
   Alkaloid obtained from Belladonna and other Solanaceous plants. Powerfully mydriatic, anodyne, antispasmodic, deliriant; stimulates respiratory center, suppresses secretions of skin and mucous mem brane; antagonistic to morphine. See Belladonna. Dose, 0.0003 to 9.0013 Grm. (1-200 to 1-50 gr.).2

CALABAR BEAN (Physostigma).PHVE11
   The seeds of PHYSOSTIGMA VENENOSUM, Bali. Deprossant of motor tract of spinal cord; used in tetanus and in strychnine poison ing to control spasms, in constipation, and to counteract the effect of atropine on the eye.2

DUBOISIADUBOI
   The leaves of DUBOISIA MYOPOROIDES, R. Br. Resembles Bella donna in its medicinal properties, but more distinctly hypnotic and calmative. The extract, also the alkaloid derived from the leaves, is used to produce mydriasis, its action being more prompt than that of atropine, and the effect passing off more quickly.2

HENBANE (Hyoscyamus)HYOSC
   The leaves of HYOSCYAMUS NIGER, Lin. Anodyne, antispasmodic, hypnotic. Often prescribed in acute mania, hypochondriasis, de lirium tremens, dementia accompanied with excitement; in cough mixtures; associated with cathartics to prevent griping; as a sedative for children. taking the place of opium; for nausea of pregnancy, etc. Contains Hyoscine, q. v., as its most important active constituent (associated with Hyoscyamine and Atropine). Dose, 0.3 to 1.0 Grm. (5 to 15 grs.).2

HYOSCINE
   Alkaloid obtained from HYOSCYAMUS NIGER, Lin. Identified by some with Scopolamine, cbtained from Scopola atropoides, which is at least isomeric with it. and is now almost universally substituted for it as it is in the following preparations. Mydriatic like atropine, but quite different in its medicinal action, which is that of a sedative and hypnotic. Dose, 0.00015 to 0.0012 (1-400 to 1-50 gr.).2

HYOSCYAMINE
   Alkaloid found in many mydriatic drugs; closely related to Atropine and isomeric with that alkaloid. Dose, 0.0003 to’ 0.0015 (1-200 to 1-40 gr.). b. iron Hypophosphite (Ferrous or Ferric). Hematic tonic as well as nerve food. Dose, 0.03 to 0.30 Grm. (1/2 to 5 grs.).2

OPIUM
   Concrete milky exudation obtained from the capsules of PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM, Lin. A type of narcotics; anodyne, hypnotic; dimin ishes secretions, except that of the skin; tends to cause constipation. Its effects are modified by combination with Atropine, which antago nizes some of its unpleasant effects and Ipecac, whose diaphoretic action it notably increases. Average sedative dose for an adult, 0.06 Grm. (1 gr.).2


WARNING: All medicines, drugs, plants, chemicals or medicial precedures below are for historical reference only. Many of these treatments are now known to be harmful and possibly fatal. Do not consume any plant, chemical, drug or otherwise without first consulting a licensed physician that practices medine in the appropriate field.

Physician's Therapeutics Memoranda on Atropine

ANGINA PECTORIS
   In intervals between attacks, prescribe a simple but nourishing diet with avoidance of all forms of excitement or violent exertion; cardiac tonics, arsenic... / ...holic stimulants, Elixir Digitalin Compound, N., B. & Co. or compound spirit ether. Other remedies of value are antipyrin, injections of morphine and atropine and inhalations of oxygen.2

BURNS AND SCALDS
   For shock, stimulants, especially Elixir Digitalin Compound: hypodermatic injections morphine and atropine. Among the best local remedies are carron oil (linseed oil and lime-water, equal parts, to which may be added 5 per cent. of carbolic acid), solution picric acid (picric acid, 37 grs.; alcohol, 1% fl. ozs.; water, (1. s. to make one pint), creosote water (to relieve pain); in less severe burns, carbolated oil (15 grs. to fl. oz.), Alkal-antiseptine, sodium carbonate in aqueous solution.2

CALCULI, BILIARY
   Relieve pain by hypodermatic injection of morphine and atropine and by cautious inhalations of chloroform, 20 to 30 minims at a time. Give olive... / Relieve pain by hypodermatic injection of morphine and atropine and by cautious inhalations of chloroform, 20 to 30 minims at a time. Give olive oil (not less than half a pint, to which 30 to 60 minims of ...2

CALCULI. RENAL OR VESICAL
   Pain, (renal colic) must be treated with chlorodyne, belladonna in full doses, morphine and atropine hypodermatically, cautious in hzilations of chloroform. Remedies depend on nature of the calculus.2

CHOLERA, ASIATIC
   As prophylactic measures, avoid all uncooked foods, especiaHy water that has not been boiled; sulphuric acid lemonade. In early stage,... / ... treatment which was very successful was with heroic doses of calomel. In stage of collapse stimulants and hot baths or hot water bed; strychnine and atropine hypodermatically; subcutaneous injection of normal salt solution.2

COLLAPSE
   The most important remedies are Elixir D igitalin Compound, N., B. & Co. and atropine hypodermatically. Subcutaneous injection of saline solution; ether. digitalis, alcohol are remedies of value. See Shock.2

CONJUNCTIVITIS
   In simple acute Conjunctivitis, boric acid, 10 grs. to the oz.’ in camphor water, or sodium borate of similar strength; silver nit... / ...oride 1l8000, formaldehyd, 13000) with leeches to temples for in flammation; silver nitrate, 15 grs. to fl. oz.; Iodosyl in powder; instilla tions of atropine solution with use of Iodosyl if ulcerations of cornea occur.2

HYPERIDROSIS (Of feet, arm-pits, etc)
   Use dusting powder of boric acid and zinc oleate or of talcum with a little salicylic acid and atropine (1-16 gr. to the ounce); oint ment of formalin (10 per cent.).2

IRITIS
   Instillation of atropine solution is imperative; leeches to the temple; morphine to control pain. In Syphilitic Iritis mercurials and iodides. In Rheumatic Iritis, salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, aspirin, etc.2

NEURALGIA
   For immediate relief, prescribe acetanilid, phenacetin or anti pyrin usually conjoined with... / ...locally, liniments of aconite or chloroform; menthol, chloride of methyl spray; applica tions of electricity; hypodermatic injections of morphine and atropine (only when nothing else will serve). .In the general treatment, strychnine, arsenic and iron are the most generally useful remedies, but atte...2

NIGHT SWEATS
   The remedies most efficient are belladonna or atropine, camphoric acid, zinc oxide, pilocarpine (as a stimulant to the sweat-glands), sulphuric acid; as a lotion, solution of alum in water or dilute alco hol; diluted acetic acid.2

PNEUMONIA (Croupous.)
   Only at the very outset are arterial sedatives useful, veratrum being best. When consolidation... / ... the heart is reinforced if necessary by digitalis and alcoholic stimulants. Elixir Digitalin Compound, N., B. & Co., is often useful. Strychnine and atropine hypodermatically are important remedies if cyanosis is extreme; in halations of oxygen are also of great value in such cases. Combat untoward...2

SCIATICA
   General treatment for neuralgia. Hypodermatic iniections of atropine in heroic doses (1-20 grain) is highly recommended by some to cut short the attack. Others advise acupuncture or local massage or the ether spray, applied daily, or the hypodermatic use of morphine or of chloroform. In any case the hot water bottle and liniments of chloroform, aconite, methyl salicylate and menthol are remedies of value.2

SHOCK
   Hypodermatic injection of atropine and digitalin; application of heat by hot water bags, etc.; intravenous injection of sterilized normal salt solution2

TETANUS
   Tetanus antitoxin should be administered at once, and convul sions combated by inhalations of chloroform or by chloral combined with potassium bromide (see Bromanodyne, Part I). Other remedies are cocaine or a combination of this with morphine and atropine, hypodermatically; Fowler’s solution; calabar bean; pilocarpine (the last to eliminate the toxin).2


References

1) Felter, Harvey Wickes, 1922, The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Cincinnati, Ohio.
2) Nelson, Baker & Co., 1904, Physician's Handy Book of Materia Medica and Therapeustics, Detroit, Michigan.